时态和语态及虚拟语气,201伍报考学士复试菲律宾语之听力小技巧

  时态和语态对于听力解题至关心注重要,听清了、精晓了听力材料的时态,看清了题干和选拔的语态能够高效解题。以下,跨考教育[微博]克罗地亚语教学切磋室的名师们为我们整理了切实可行的答题思路。

第三节时态

时态

塞尔维亚共和国(Republic of Serbia)语的时态(tense)是壹种动词方式,不相同的时态用以代表分裂的大运与办法。

  一、步骤

1.时态的归类:①般时;达成时;进行时。

叁.1 时态的品种

方式\时间 现在 过去 将来 过去将来
一般 live/lives lived shall/will live would/should be live
进行 am/is/are living was/were living shall/will be living would/should be living
完成 have/has lived had lived shall/will have lived would/should have lived
完成进行 have/has been living had been living shall/will have been living would/should have been living

是意味作为、动作和情景在各类时间标准下的动词情势。因而,当大家说时态结构的时候,指的是相应时态下的动词格局。

  (一)先根据选项的不一致点明显考题要点为时态,然后回来题句中摸索给出的或暗示的时日状语,减弱采纳范围,进而选出正确答案;

1.1.一般时:

三.2 一般未来时

德语时态分为16种:1般未来、一般过去、一般以往、过去现在时,以及那四者的举办时、完成时和成就进行时

  (二)依据谓语动词与句子主语或非谓语动词与其逻辑主语的涉及,分明句子是主动语态仍然被动语态。

壹1般将来时:

三.二.一 壹般以往时表示日常性的动作或情状

相似未来时在表示日常性动作或意况时常与often,always,usually,sometimes,everyday,generally等状语连用

  • He lives in New York
  • We visit him every summer

上面就希腊语中普遍的八种基本时态实行解说,别的的时态都以在这多种时态的底子上结缘而成的。

  二、要点

He writes a letter every day.

三.贰.2 1般以后时表示客观规律或普遍真理

  • Two plus two equals four
  • Knowledge is power

纵使在主句的谓语动词为过去时态的事态下,宾语从句的谓语动词仍旧用1般现在时来表示客观规律或普遍真理

  • The teacher told them since light travels faster than
    sound,lightning appears to go before thunder

壹、 一般未来时:

  一.之下几类动词1般无法用来实行时,同样不用于达成进行时:

时态和语态及虚拟语气,201伍报考学士复试菲律宾语之听力小技巧。二相似过去时:

3.贰.三 一般以后时表示主语的性格或气象

  • Air contains oxygen and nitrogen
  • Japan lies to the east of China

一.概念:平日、反复发生的动作或行为及今后的某种景况。

  (1)表示感知的动词:hear, feel, notice, recognize, see, taste, smell;

He wrote a letter yesterday.

三.二.四 一般以后时在时刻和准星状语从句中象征未来的动作或状态

  • I’ll let you know as soon as he comes
  • We will go fishing if it is fine tomorrow

2.岁月状语: always, usually, often, sometimes, every week (day, year,
month…), once a week, on Sundays,

  (二)表示希望、激情的动词:desire, dislike, forgive, hate, like, love,
prefer, refuse, want, wish, fear, love, hate;

三形似现在时:

三.三 1般过去时

三.主干组织:动词 原形
(如主语为第五个人称单数,动词上要改为第多少人称单数方式)

  (3)表示思考、看法的动词:believe, doubt, expect, forget, hope, feel,
mean, know, agree, realize, mind, recall, recollect, remember, trust,
suppose;

He will write a letter tomorrow.

叁.三.1 一般过去时表示过去的动作或状态

  1. 诚如过去时经常与代表过去的日子状语连用
    • The train arrived ten minutes ago
    • I was away yesterday afternoon

其它,一般过去时还足以和for或since辅导的年华状语连用
* I lived here for five years
* Nothing happened since then

  1. 有时候一般过去时的小时状语或是在上下文,或是暗含于句中
    • Did you sleep well
    • I saw him on my way to walk

4.矢口否认情势:am/is/are+not;此时态的谓语动词若为行为动词,则在其前加don’t,如主语为第六人称单数,则用doesn’t,同时还原行为动词。

  (肆)表示全数、占有的动词:belong to, owe, own, possess, hold(容纳);

1.2.完成时:

三.3.2 1般过去时在时刻和规则状语从句中意味着过去以后的动作或意况

  • Tom promised to write to us when he reached London
  • He said he would let us know if he got any news

伍.貌似难题句:把be动词放于句首;用助动词do提问,如主语为第多少人称单数,则用does,同时,还原行为动词。

  (5)其余动词:cost, appear, concern, contain, consist, deserve,
matter, seem。

一现行反革命达成时:

叁.肆 一般未来时

  • We shall be pleased to accept your invitation
  • My son will be five years old next month

6.例句:. It seldom snows here.

  如:

He has written the letter.

3.伍 现在举办时

He is always ready to help others.

  I’d say whenever you are going after something that is belonging to
you, anyone who is depriving you of the right to have it is criminal。

二病逝做到时:

三.5.壹 未来进行时表示说话时或现阶段正在拓展的动作

  • The telephone is ringing
  • We are preparing for the meeting to be held next month

Action speaks louder than words.

  (1997年考研[微博]题,
belong表示归属,不用于举行式)

He had written the letter when I came.

三.5.二 现在进行时表示平常性的动作

现今进行时在表示日常性、重复性或习惯性的动作时务必与always,constantly,continually,repeatedly等频度副词连用

  • The child is continually losing keys
  • Why are you always complaining

贰、 一般过去时:

  He was seeing somebody creeping into the house through the open
window last night。

三现在完毕时:

3.陆 过去进行时

1.定义:过去有些时间里发出的动作或气象;过去习惯性、常常性的动作、行为。

  (一9九零年报考大学生题,see代表结果,不用于进行式)

He will have written the letter before I come.

三.陆.1 过去实行时表示过去某时正在举行的动作

  1. 千古进行时日常和时间状语连用
    • He was singing just now
    • What were you doing last night
  2. 千古举办时可用作任何动作爆发的背景
    • I was reading while she was writing
    • Tome walked in when I was having my lunch

有时过去实行时用于主句,位于今后的when引导的从句中意味着意外产生的动静

  • I was having my lunch when Tom walked in

贰.岁月状语:ago, yesterday, the day before yesterday, last
week,last(year, night, month…), in 198八, just now, at the age of 五, one
day, long long ago, once upon a time, etc.

  贰. 毫不will/shall表达以往时的款式:

1.3.进行时:

三.陆.二 过去实行时表示过去以后的动作

过去实行时的那种用法多表示过去的打算,平常仅限于come,go,leave,depart,start等局地意味移动的动词

  • He said he was leaving the next day
  • We were departing two days later

3.中坚构造:be动词;行为动词 的过去式

  (一)be going to表示今后的打算和用意;

1一现在举办时:

3.七 未来举行时

  1. 现在进行时表示揣测即将面世或一定出现的动静

    • The train will be arriving soon
    • How long will you be staying for?
  2. 曹魏实行时表示以往一段时间内正在进展的动作

    • We shall be traveling this time next year
    • They will be doing the experiment for seven to nine this evening

四.矢口否认格局:was/were+not;在表现动词前加didn’t,同时还原行为动词。

  (二)arrive, come, drive, go, leave, retire, return, set off, start,
take off等象征移位的动词的实行体表示按布置肯定要发出的今天动作;

He is writing a letter now.

3.8 过去现在时

  1. 过去未来时表示过去某时之后将出现的境况,平时用于宾语从句中
    • I thought he would come
    • She never imagined that she would become a doctor

伍.相似难题句:was或were放于句首;用助动词do的千古式did
提问,同时还原行为动词。

  (三)be to (do)表示配置、布置、决定、命令或决定要爆发的事,如:

贰身故进行时:

三.九 现在做到时

6.例句:She often came to help us in those days.

  Greater efforts to increase agricultural production must be made if
food shortage is to be avoided。

He was writing a letter when I came.

三.玖.1 以往完结时表示从过去不断到前日的动作或状态

  1. 后天形成时的这种用法平日与由since或for指引的光阴状语连用
    • I have waited here since three o’clock
    • I have waited here for three hours

I didn’t know you were so busy.

  (4)be about to (do)表示将要(做),如:

三未来进行时:

叁.玖.二 未来完结时表示过去爆发的对当今有震慑的动作

  1. 近日到位时的那种用法有时不带时间状语,有时能够和already,before,ever,just,lately,never,once,recently,yet等一些所指时间不具体的年月状语连用

    • I have lost my keys
    • Have you ever been to Australia
  2. 有时候未来成功时和now,today,this morning,this week,this
    year等代表现在的时日状语连用

    • 时态和语态及虚拟语气,201伍报考学士复试菲律宾语之听力小技巧。I haven’t seen him today
    • They have produced five films this year

叁、 今后举办时:

  Marlin is a young man of independent thinking who is not about to
pay compliments to his political leaders。

He will be writing a letter when I come.

三.十 过去完毕时

1.定义:表示方今或讲话时正值展开的动作及作为。

  (5)be on the point /verge of
(doing)表示“立时快要”,一般不与代表今后的时日状语连用;

壹.4.成功进行时:

三.十.1 过去达成时表示过去某时以前截至的动作或情形

  • When we reached the station,the train had already left
  • He told me that he had finished his paper

had + just/barely/hardly/scarcely + done
…when…是代表“刚…就…”或“不等…就…”的固定句型

  • I had hardly opened the door when the phone rang
  • He had scarcely arrived when he had to leave again

②.时间状语:now, at this time, these days, etc.

  (陆)be, begin, come, depart, get off, go, leave, return,
start的相似现在时表示按日历或时刻表要爆发的前几天动作或事件,如:

壹现行反革命形成实行时:

三.拾.二 过去成功时表示持续到千古某时在此之前的动作或状态

  • He had worked here for 20 years old by the end of last month
  • My sister said she had read three novels since she entered the
    university

3.着力构造:am/is/are+doing

  If you want your film to be properly processed, you’ll have to wait
and pick it up on Friday, which is the day after tomorrow。

He has been writing for two hours.

三.十.叁 过去形成时表示未完毕的意愿

过去到位时表示未落到实处的意思的用法仅限于expect,hope,intend,mean,plan,think,want等动词

  • I had intended to come,but I was too busy
  • I had expected to meet him at the meeting

肆.否认情势:am/is/are+not+doing.

  (画线部分壹般不要will be)

2身故到位实行时:when I called,he had been writing a letter for two
hours.

3.1一 今后达成时

5.一般问题句:把be动词放于句首。

  (柒)在时刻、条件、迁就从句中,1般现在时期替以后时,但要注意区分从句的品类,如:

二.行使相似以往时的空子:主语+一般将来时动词。

三.11.一 今后完毕时表示到今后某时已结束的动作或气象

  • When you come tomorrow, we shall have found the answer
  • He will have forgotten about it before long

6.例句: How are you feeling today?

  I don’t know where he will go tomorrow.
作者不清楚他明日去哪儿。(宾语从句)

2.1.表知觉、状态、所有:

三.1一.2 未来实现时表示持续到前些天某时的动作或情形

  • By the time I graduate,I shall have studied English for six years
  • He will have been a teacher for a whole year by next Monday

He is doing well in his lessons.

  I’ll tell him when you will ring again.
小编报告她你怎么时候再来电话。(宾语从句)

I smell something burning.

三.1二 今后形成实行时

肆、 过去进行时:

  比较:I’ll tell him when you ring
again。你再打电话时自个儿报告她。(状语从句)

You look worried.

三.1二.一 现在形成进行时表示从过去直接频频到前几日的动作

  1. 近期到位举办时所表示的动作刚刚停下

    • I have been waiting here for you since three o’clock
  2. 目前做到时实行时所代表的动作或许继续下去

    • She has been wearing glasses since last year
    • We have been discussing for two hours

1.定义:表示过去某段时间或某1整日正在发生或开始展览的表现或动作。

  (八)在make sure, make certain, see (to it)
后的that从句中,谓语动词用一般今后时期替以后时,如:

This medicine tasts bitter to me.

三.1二.贰 今后形成时表示从过去到明日的重复性动作

  1. 现今实现举行时的那种用法所代表的并不是直接在开始展览的动作,而是断断续续地反复发生的动作
    • He has been appearing on TV
    • You have been coming to see me for many years
    • I’ve been wanting to write you for a long time

二.小时状语:at this time yesterday, at that
time或以when教导的谓语动词是相似过去时的年月状语等。

  See to it that you include in the paper whatever questions they
didn’t know the answer to last time。

He has a book.

三.一3 过去到位举行时

千古做到进行时首要持续到千古某时在此以前的动作

  1. 过去落成举办时所代表的动作到某时已经结束

    • The phone had been ringing for two minutes before it was
      answered
  2. 千古形成实行时所表示的动作到某时大概继续下去

    • By last Friday ,he had been working in our company for three
      years
    • He said he had been practicing on the piano since he was five

三.中坚组织:was/were+doing

  (include 无法用will include或别的花样)

Your hands feel cold.

叁.1肆 不可能用来开始展览时态的动词

稍稍动词不可能用于开始展览时态,它们是局地静态动词,那类动词包涵表示“存在”和“拥有”的动词、表示感官的动词、表示考虑活动的动词,表示心理的动词等,如:be,exist;have,own,possess;see,hear,taste,smell,feel;agree,belive,desire,dislike,doubt等。

四.否认格局:was/were + not + doing.

  3.形成时是时态测试的关键,注意与成就时连用的句型和岁月状语:

I see a man standing there.

5.形似难点句:把was或were放于句首。

  (1)by/between/up to/till +过去日子、since、by the time/when
+代表过去发生意况的从句,主句用过去完毕时。如:

He is a student.

6.例句:At that time she was working in a PLA unit.

  We had just had our breakfast when an old man came to the door。

二.2.表习惯的动作,常以时间副词修饰:

When he came in, I was reading a newspaper.

  Between 1897 and 1919 at least 29 motion pictures in which
artificial beings were portrayed had been produced。

He goes to school every day.

5、 未来完毕时:

  (表示一9二零年时已发出的动静)

He writes a letter every day.

一.概念:过去产生或已经到位的动作对前几天促成的熏陶或结果,或从过去早就上马,持续到后日的动作或情状。

  (2)by +现在光阴、by the time/ when
+谓语动词是相似现在时的从句,主句用以后做到时。如:

He always take a bus home.

贰.时刻状语:recently, lately, since…for…,in the past few years, etc.

  By the time you arrive in London, we will have stayed in Europe for
two weeks。

2.3.表真理,事实,格言:

叁.核心构造:have/has + done

  I hope her health will have improved greatly by the time we come
back next year。

The sun rises in the east.

四.矢口否认方式:have/has + not +done.

  (三)by now、since +过去时光、in/during/for/over/the past/last
few(或具体数字)years/days/months,主句用今天形成时, 但在it is
+具体日子since/before这一句型中,主句越多的时候绝不完结时。如:

He ,who is lazy is doomed to failure.=he, who is lazy is doomed to fail.

伍.形似难题句:have或has。

  The changes that howe taken place place in air travel during the
last sixty years would have seemed completely impossible to even the
most brilliant scientists at the turn of the 19th century。

Honest is the best policy.

6.例句:I’ve written an article.

  It is four years since John left school。

二.四.表以往:begin/start/arrive/go/come等动词用壹般未来时表未来。Does he
come tomorrow?

The countryside has changed a lot in the past few years.

  (四)在It is the
+序数词/形容词最高级+that的定语从句中,谓语动词常用后天成功时。如:

三.用到相似过去时的机会:主语+一般过去时动词

6、 过去实现时:

  It isn’t the first time that I have found myself in an embarrassing
situation。

三.1.表过去的动作、习惯、状态:

一.定义:以过去有个别时刻为行业内部,从前爆发的动作或行为,或在过去某动作以前到位的作为,即“过去的死亡”。

  (伍)在no sooner…than…,
hardly/scarcely…when/before…句型中,主句常用过去完成时。

I saw him yesterday.

②.小时状语:before, by the end of last year(term, month…),etc.

  (陆)其余与完结时连用的岁月状语:all this while, all this year, for
some time, so far, already, before, just, long, yet等。

He was born in 1978.

叁.基本构造:had + done.

  四.完结举办时指动作在做到时的底蕴上还要继续下去。如:

3.贰.表过去的经历(也可用未来成功时):

四.否认情势:had + not + done.

  The company has been promising a rise in salary for ages, but
nothing has happened。

Did you ever see her before?=Have you ever see her before?

伍.相似难题句:had放于句首。

  The school board listened quietly as John read the demand that his
followers had been demonstrating for。

3.3.句中若有before,after,until等连词辅导的从句,由于时间顺序很领悟,可用1般过去时代替过去形成时。

6.例句:As soon as we got to the station, the train had left.

  文章来源:跨考教育

肆.用壹般以后时的机遇:主语+will+原形动词表今后要爆发的动作或状态。

By the end of last month. We had reviewed four books

It will rain tomorrow.

柒、 1般现在时:

注意:一由连词when,unless,if,once等所指导的状语从句表示某条件要用一般今后时,主句要用1般以后时。

一.概念:表示将要爆发的动作或存在的情景及打算、安顿或准备做某事。

When I have money,I will buy a car.

二.岁月状语:tomorrow, next day(week, month, year…),soon, in a few
minutes, by…,the day after tomorrow, etc.

②be going to=will

三.主导构造:am/is/are/going to + do;will/shall + do.

He is going to come.=he will come.

四.否认情势:was/were + not; 在表现动词前加didn’t,同时还原行为动词。

五.采用未来完毕时的空子:

伍.貌似难题句:be放于句首;will/shall提到句首。

主语+have+p.p.(have译作:曾经)

6.例句:They are going to have a competition with us in studies.

5.一.用来代表到明日了却达成的动作:

It is going to rain.

I have just finished my work.

八、 过去年今年后时:

5.2.用以代表到前几天归西的经历,

1.概念:立足于过去某1随时,从过去看现在,常用天水语从句中。

I have met him several times.

贰.岁月状语:the next day(morning, year…),the following month(week…),etc.

五.三.用以代表到现行反革命得了仍在三番五次的动作或情状:

叁.骨干组织:was/were/going to + do;would/should + do.

I have lived here 10 years.

肆.否认方式:was/were/not + going to + do;would/should + not + do.

She has studied English since 2000.

5.相似难题句:was或were放于句首;would/should 提到句首。

留神:表“曾去过”的经验时,用“have been”而非“have gone”

6.例句:He said he would go to Beijing the next day.

He has gone toHong Kong.已经去了,以后人在香港(Hong Kong);he has been to Hong
Kong.曾去过,今后又再次回到了。

I asked who was going there .

6.身故做到时的空子:主语+had+p.p.(had译作已经,或曾经)用以代表甘休过去某时所形成的动作或经历。

九.未来成功时:

He had studied English for10 years before he left for the States.

1.概念:在今后某如今刻在此以前发轫的动作或气象

He told me that he had seen the movies
once.注意过去成功时不可能独立存在,必须有相似过去时从句或表过去的时日副词短语连用方可呈现出分裂时间发生的二种动作。

2.时日状语:by the time of;by the end of+时间短语(以后);by the
time+从句(未来)

I lost the book which she had given me.

三.骨干组织:be going to/will/shall + have done

7.选用现在达成时的机会:

十.未来成就举办时:

主语+will
have+p.p.译作“将已经”,表示到今后某时已经形成或仍在继续开始展览的动作或经历等。

1.定义:在过去某一时时在此之前发轫的动作或处境一贯频频到讲话截至

He will have arrived in Chicago by this time tomorrow.

贰.核心结构:have/has +been+doing

When you come ,everything will have been finished.

二种普遍时态的交互转换

八.采用今后举行时的火候:主语+is/am/are+今后分词

法语中的三种时态在肯定情状下能够相互转换,以下是两种常见的变换方式:

一用以表示正在做的动作。

拾一、 1般过去时与明日达成时的转移

I am doing laundry.

在未来完成时中,一连性动词能与代表一段时间的状语连用,须臾间动词却不可能。可是,可用其他表明格局:壹弹指间动词用于“一段时间
+
ago”的相似过去时的句型中;2壹晃动词可改成与之相呼应的可持续性动词及短语,与1段时间连用;3须臾间动词用于“It
is + 一段时间 + since +
一般过去时”的句型中,表示“自从……以来有……时间”的意思,主句一般用it
is来顶替It has been;41眨眼动词用于“Some time has passed since +
1般过去时”的句型中。请看:

二用以代表将要爆发的动作,常与表以后的年华副词连用。

A. He joined the League two years ago.

He is coming today.=he will be coming today.

B. He has been in the League for two years.

九.行使过去进行时的空子:主语+was/were+今后分词1意味着过去某时正在做的动作:

C. It is two years since he joined the League.

He was taking a bath when you called.

D. Two years has passed since he joined the League.

二表壹般过去时中即将发生的事:

10贰、 1般今后时与明日进行时的转换

He was dying=he was going to die.=he was about to die.

在形似未来时中,at加上名词意味着“处于某种情况”,如at work(在工作), at
school(上学、上课)等。此短语可与举行时态转换。请看:

拾.施用未来进行时的时机:主语+willbe+未来分词,表于今后某时将进行的动作。

Peter is at work, but Mike is at play.

He will be reading book this time tomorrow.

Peter is working, but Mike is playing.

1一.使用以往到位举办时的火候:主语+have/has
been+以后分词,译作“一贯都在”,表示一向继承到最近且仍将继续下去的动作。

10三、 将来实行时与一般以往时的变换

She has been working with this company for 5 years.

在后日展开时态中go, come, leave, start,
arrive等动词常与代表以后的大运状语连用表示即将发生的动作。如:I am
coming, Mum! 意为“我就来,妈妈!”请看:

1二.选取过去做到进行时的时机:主语+had
been+现在分词,译作“从来都在”,表示一贯继承到千古某时,而且当时仍在连继续展览开的动作。要留心的是:与过去成功时1致,不可能独立存在,须有类同过去时连用。

The train is leaving soon.

I had been sleeping when he came.

The train will leave soon.

13.选用今后实现进行时的火候:主语+will have
been+今后分词,译作“将直接在”,表一向到以后某时,仍将接二连三的动作。

十四种时态

I will have been studying English for ten yearsby the end of this year.

相似未来时,一般过去时,一般今后时,壹般过去以往时;

1肆.时态的前后1致

近来举行时,过去进行时,以往举行时,过去未来进行时;

14.一主句即便壹般未来时,从句无法用过去成功时和过去成功举办时,其余均可。

今昔做到时,过去达成时,以往完毕时,过去以往完毕时;

1肆.二.主句若为1般过去时,则从句不可能用表以往和以往的时态。

前日完结进行时,过去完成进行时,以往实现举办时,过去未来实现进展时.

1四.三.从句表示真理时,恒用一般今后时,不必与主句一致。

自个儿是致力越南语的,不明再问。

一伍.”for+壹段时间”与成功时的关系:

(for/during/in/through/down through) the (past/last)five
years.=since five years
ago.自从五年前起,那个短语与以后完结时或未来完成举行时连用。

I have been studying English for the past two weeks.

1陆.since和到位时的关联:

壹表“自从”时,可作介词,之后接名词可能动名词2since也可作副词连词教导1般过去时的状语从句,主句用明日实现时或今后完毕举办时。

I have been studying English since I went to college.

He has lived here since 2000.

三since之后接鲜明的时点作宾语,不可能接时段作宾语

肆since后借使时段,一定要那段时日以往加ago。

Peter has lived here since two years ago.

5现行反革命形成时和当今形成举办时的动词与”for+1段时间”连用时,该动词所表示动作必须可连日来开始展览。不然选用下列结构才能与since连用:it
is+壹段时间+since+非一连动词/时点

It is twenty years since he married.

第三节语态

1.语态的类型:分主动语态和被动语态三种,用于被动语态的必须是及物动词。

2.给予动词有三种被动语态:

I gave him a book.(主动)

①He was given a book by me.(被动)

②A book was given him by me.(被动)

三.动词+介词结构,也可成为被动语态:

They laugh at me.→I was laughed at by them.

Police looked into the case.→The case was looked into by police.

肆.否定句的被动语态

They don’t love him.→He is not loved by them.

其三节虚拟语气(subjunctive mood)

虚拟语气是一种象征假若状态的句型,由if教导的状语从句与主句构成。依时态的两样形成种种为主句型:

1.纯准绳的虚拟语气~用现在时

If he is here,I will beat him.

二.与前几日真相相反的虚拟语气~用过去时

If he were here,I would beat him.(but he is not here)

三.与过去事实相反的用过去实现时

If he had been here,I would have beaten him.kbut he was not here)

4与以往的实际相反的用虚拟语气有~if从句要用助动词should,译作“万一”,主句则用过去时或以后时的助动词。

If he should be here,I (would/will)beat him.

第四节选用虚拟语气应注意事项

壹.意味鲜明与真理相反的虚拟语气句型:

If主语+were to+原形动词,主语+would等助动词+原形动词

If the cat were tosmile,I would pass out.

If the sun were to rise in the west,how surprised these sunflowers would
be.

2.if的省略:

www.cabet266.com,虚拟语气的if从句中若有表“实现”的助动词had或表“万一”的助动词should或were的面世时可将其内置主语前,而省略if。

If he had done it,he would have felt sorry.→Had he done it.he would have
felt sorry.

He should tell lies,i would punish him.→should he tell lies,i would
punish him.

If he were lazy,he might fail.→were he lazy,he might fail.

三.时态不一样等的假若:

也正是if从句与过去实际相反,用过去做到时;主句与今天事实相反,则置助动词过去时。句型如下:if主语+had+p.p.,主语+(would/could/might/should)+V+(now/today)

If I had started saving then,I would have been able to buy a car now.

四.可代表if的别的连词:

If=in case(that)/on condition that/provided/providing(that)/so longas/as lon瓦斯/此类连词一般只好用于纯条件情形下,其指引的从句均为壹般今后时。

In case he comes,let me know.

I will take the trip with you on condition that you bear the expense.

Iwill pardon him provided/providing(that)he acknowledges his mistake.

Any book will do as long as it is interesting.

注意:in case +(that)从句 万一……

In case of+名词 万一……

In case of an accident,don’t panic=in case (that) an accident,don’t
panic.

5.but for……若非/要不是……

此类句型仅限于与昨日事实及过去事实相反的虚拟语气

5.一.与现时事实相反:若非/要不是……就……

If it (were not/but
for+名词)+(for+名词/一般现在时that从句),主语+(could/would/might/should)+not+原形动词

If it were not that he works hard,I wouldn’t like him.=If itwere not for
his hard work,…

=were it not for his hard work,…(要不是她极力干活,笔者才不爱好他)

=but for his hard work,…

伍.2.与过去实际相反的虚拟语气,若非当时……就……

If it had not
been(for+名词/一般过去时that从句),+主语(would/could/might/should/ought
to)+not+have+p.p.

If it had not been that he lent me the money,I could not have bought the
book.=if it had not been for the money(which)he lent me,i could not have
bought the book.=but for the money he lent me,i could not have bought
the book.要不是他那时借钱给自个儿,笔者就买不停那书了。

But for可用介词without代替之后仍接名词。

But for his help,I couldn’t have done it.=without his help,I couldn’t
have done it.

6.lest…(should)…以免……

Lest为副词连词,指引状语从句,在该从句中助动词只用should,should往往省略。

I got up early,lest I miss the train.

专注:lest should=for fear that+主语+may+V.(表今后或现在的场地)

+might+V.(表过去的气象)

You muststudy hard lest you should fail the exam.=you must study hard
for fear that you may fail the exam.=you must study hard for fear of
failing the exam.

7.as if=as
yhough译作“就如……”,均为副词连词,指点状语从句,使用时有三种时态:

七.一.表非常的大或者,动词使用相似时态

It looks as if(as though) it is going to rain.

柒.二.表与将来实际相反,要用1般过去时

Mr.wang loves me as if(though)I were his own child.

七.三.表与过去实际相反,用过去成功时。

He looked as if (though)nothing had happened.

7.四.as if或as though之后可接不定式,表示将要发生的场馆。

She opened her lips ss if(as though)(she was going)to speak.

八.what
if…should…?如若……的话会怎样?本句型表对今后情景存疑的虚拟语气,if从句用助动词should。

What if he should come?=what might happen if he should come?=what should
we do if he should come?

What if it should rain?=what if it rains?=what may happen if it rains?

玖.It is (about time/time/high time)
+that从句的貌似过去时译作“该是……的时候了”注目的在于选用本句型时that从句的动词要用1般过去时。It
is time(that)he went to
bed.(本句暗示今后该是睡觉时候了却没睡,其动作与现时真相相反故用一般过去时。)

It is high time we did it.

It is time our children learned some maners.

上列结构可改为不定式,

It is time he went to bed.=It is time for him togo to bed.

十.if
only…假如……就好了:本句型只用于与明日实际相反或与过去事实相反的虚拟语气中,即该句型只好用过去完结时或过去时

If only he were here=I wish he were here.

If only I had known it earlier.=I wish I had known it earlier.

11.wish的用法:

1一.一wish之后接that从句时,一定要用虚拟语气有,壹般过去时表与后天反而;过去形成时与过去相反。

I wish he were here.

I wish he had been here.=I would rather he had been here.

12.hope的用法:之后接that从句时,用壹般时态表示十分大只怕:表未来场馆用今天时;表以后意况用未来时;表实现的风貌用完了时;表展开的场合用进行时。各that
都可归纳

Ihope (that) he is safe.

Ihope he will beback.

I hope they are having a good time.

I hope they have finished the work.

13.I hope与祈使句的关系:I
hope接that从句时,句中可应用助动词may,形成祈使句,此时将I hope
that删掉,再将may置于that从句的主语此前,动词仍用原形,改句号为惊讶号。

I hope that he may live long.→May he live long!

I hope you may pass the exam.→May you pass the exam!

注意:1上述协会转变中,以God为主语时,可粗略may。例如:

I hope God may bless you.→May God bless you!→God bless you!

2表太岁万岁时,可倒装:

I hope the king may live long.→May the king live long!→ long live the
king!

14wish&hope的异同:

14.1.相同点:

壹均可用不定式作宾语。

Iwish to travel abroad.=I hope to travel abroad.

贰都可作比不上物动词,与介词for连用,表“期望获取”之意,以名词作者for宾语。

I wish for a chance to try it.

1四.二.差别之处:表“祝福”时,只可以用wish,之后接多个名词或代词作者宾语(类似授予动词)

I wish you a good time.=I hope (that) you (may)have a good time.

I wish my parents longevity.=I hope (that) my parents can live long.

壹五.对过去东西揣摸的两种句型:

壹must have+p.p.势必已经……he is learned,he must have recieved a good
education.

2may have+p.p.也许已经……he may have atayed up late last night.

3从cannot have+p.p.不容许早已……he is honest,he cannot have stolen her
money.

四表猜想的构造为难点句时,要用Can…have…?句型之Can he have done it?

16.didn’t need to do和need not have done的区别:

didn’t need to V是表过去的实际,即“不必……”同时也未尝如此做;但need not
have +p.p.表与过去真相相反的虚拟语气,乃“本不必……但做了”

I had enough money,Ididn’t needborrow any from him.(事实是没借钱)

Since you have enough money,you needn’t have borrowedmoney from
me.Whydid you still borrow some?(事实是借钱了)

1柒.意志动词:有“建议”、“必要”、“规定”、“命令”、“主张”中国共产党第五次全国代表大会类。之后用that从句作宾语时从句中用助动词should且should可粗略。

建议:Suggest,advise,recommend,propose,yrge(呼吁)move(提议)

务求:ask,require,desire,demand,request,insist(百折不挠讲求)

命令:order.command

规定:stipulate,rule,regulate

主张:advocate,maintain

1八.suggest.insist.maintain的另类用法:

Suggest表“暗示”insist表“坚信”,maintain表“坚决认为”时,其后的that从句采取1般时态。

19.insist on+动名词,坚决要……

He insisted on doing it that way.

留神insist on doing和persist in doing的区别是:insist on
doing含有固执的象征;persist in doing含有能力百折不回,不轻易放弃的意趣。

20.表“有必要的”形容词与that从句的涉嫌:该从句用助动词须用should,且可归纳。

此类形容词有两个:necessary,important,esential,imperative,urgent,desirable,recommendable,advisable。

21.that从句作同位语:

That从句假如位于意志动词变形的名词之后,与该名词形成同位语关系时,从句中的should可回顾。

It is my suggestion that he (should) study abroad.

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